High strength carbon (C) and low alloy steels have yield strength (YS) greater than 275 N/sq mm and can be classified generally in four types namely (i)As-rolled C – Mn (manganese) steels, (ii)As rolled high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels…

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A number of factors have a significant influence on the size of the central equiaxed zone relative to that of the surrounding columnar zone in a continuous cast section. These factors are (i) super heat of the steel, (ii) steel…

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Heat flow processes inside the solidifying steel strand, such as the extraction of superheat and the growth of the solidifying shell, influence the quality of the cast billet. Knowledge of the temperature distribution in the solid shell is valuable, from…

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For smooth operation of the billet continuous casting machine, it is necessary for the machine operator to have knowledge of the mechanical properties of steel at the elevated temperatures which are described below. •Hot ductility of steel – Steel has…

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Productivity increases with increasing casting speed and increasing cross-section area. The casting speed is limited by several different phenomena as given below. •Excessive level fluctuations and waves at the meniscus become worse with greater casting speed. This can cause surface…

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